For some more references, the girl that Jisso is with is probably Jissoji Chisako (English), better known as Hara Chisako, who was (unsurprisingly) married to Jissoji Akio.
The native sitting on the swing is Kurosawa, playing out a scene from his classic Ikiru. I'm not able to find any information on the identity of the next native to speak: the kanji appears to be 哉, but that could be wrong (the dialogue is also nearly unreadable).
A page or so later, the native with 笠 on his forehead is suspected to be the screenwriter Kasahara Kazuo (English), known for the “Battles Without Honor and Humanity” series. I'm not sure exactly what scenes are being referenced, if any, by his actions.
The title is a reference to an educational children's drama that taught moral lessons. I don't know if this is an adaptation of a specific episode or not, though, since there don't seem to be readily available archives of the show online.